Journal of Business, Social and Technology (Bustechno) http://bustechno.ridwaninstitute.co.id/index.php/jbt/issue/current 
ADDING CALCIUM INFLUENCE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MORTAR WITH
DIFFERENT CEMENT VARIATIONS
Khairil Yanuar, Abdul Hafizh Ihsani, Faryanto Effendi, Muhammad Suhaimi, Ruspiansyah
Politeknik
Negeri Banjarmasin, Indonesia
Email:
khairil@poliban.ac.id, abdulhafizhihsani@gmail.com, ferindi196402@poliban.ac.id,
muhsuhaimi60@gmail.com, ruspipoliban@poliban.ac.id

Abstract 
Article
Information: Received Revised Accepted Keywords: Compressive
strength; Mixed proportions; Cement variations 
Mortar is
a mixture of binder and sand in a certain ratio, the binder is cement and
lime. This test aims to determine the results of the compressive strength of
mortar aged 3,7,14, and 28 days on variations of cement and lime mixture. The
fine aggregate used in this test is Barito Sand which is included in zone 2.
With the composition of the mixture used is 1 pc : 5 ps for cement and sand,
the mixture used for cement, lime and sand is 1 pc : 1_4^1kp : 5 ps. From the
results of this study with the same mixture proportions, the compressive
strength for the variation of cement conch (PCC) = 7.40 MPa, the variation of
cement gresik (PPC) = 10.41 MPa, the variation of cement conch with a mixture
of lime = 4.54 MPa and strong Press the mortar for the variation of Gresik
cement with a mixture of lime = 7.90 MPa. It can be concluded that the
compressive strength of mortar for cement conch with a mixture of lime is
higher than the variation of cement conch, gresik and conch with a mixture of
lime. 
Introduction
Mortar is a mortar consisting of fine aggregate (sand),
binder (clay, lime, portland cement) and water. The function of mortar is as a
binding matrix for the constituent parts of a construction, both structural and
nonstructural. The use of mortar for construction of a structural nature, such
as masonry mortar for foundation structures, while nonstructural ones, such as
masonry mortar for infill walls.
Considering the importance of mortar as part of the
loadbearing construction, the use of mortar must comply with the standard
specification of SNI0368252002. The mortar specification standard refers to
its compressive strength, namely the mortar's ability to accept loads. Similar
to concrete, the compressive strength of mortar is influenced by several
factors, including watercement and density factors, type of cement, amount of
cement, aggregate properties and also the age of the mortar. , because usually
the mortar will be loaded with a construction on it before reaching the age of
28 days. Therefore, compressive strength tests at the stages of mortar
hardening age, namely, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days need to be carried out to control
the quality of the compressive strength to be as expected, which is not less
than the compressive strength required in the bestek. The evaluation results
are used to determine whether the compressive strength of the mortar meets the
requirements or not. So a value that can be used to express the relationship
between the compressive strength at the beginning of the mortar age and the
compressive strength of the mortar characteristics is needed.
Method
1.
Making Test Items
The manufacture of
mortar specimens with variations to obtain appropriate results, respectively in
each mortar composition and the proportion of mortar mixture in each
manufacture of test specimens is made based on SNI 0368822002.
Table 1
Number of Test Objects For Mortar (Cube 5 cm x 5 cm)
No 
Sample Name And
Composition 
Mortar Age 
Number of Test Items 

3 Days 
7 Days 
14 Days 
28 Days 

1 
Semen Conch 1Sp : 5 Ps 
3 
3 
3 
6 
15 
2 
Semen Gresik 1 Sp : 5 Ps 
3 
3 
3 
6 
15 
3 
Semen Conch + Kapur 1 Sp : Kp : 5 Ps 
3 
3 
3 
6 
15 
4 
Semen Gresik + Kapur 1 Sp : Kp : 5 Ps 
3 
3 
3 
6 
15 
Total 
60 
1. Flowchart
In this study, several work steps were carried out as listed in the flow
chart of the research stages in Figure 1.
No
Figure 1
Research
Method Flowchart
Results and Discussion
1.
Fine Aggregate Test Results (Barito Sand)
The fine aggregate used is barito sand, by testing the mud content,
organic matter content, specific gravity, absorption, bulk density, water
content, sieve analysis, the results of the fine aggregate test (barito sand)
can be seen in table 2.
Table 2
Fine Aggregate Test Results (Barito Sand)
Kinds of Inspection 
Barito Sand 
Specification 

Standard/Reference 
Result 
SII 005280 

1 
Sludge levels 
% 
SNI 0341421996 
0,91% 
Max. 5% 




2 
Organic Substance Level 
SNI 0328161992 
No. 4 
Color Standard No. 2 

3 
SSD Specific Gravity 
SNI 0318701990 
2.66 gr 
Min. 2.5 

4 
Absorption 
% 
SNI 0318701990 
0,45% 
Max. 3% 

5 
Water content 
% 
SNI 0319711990 
2,98% 


6 
Grading Arrangement Aggregate : 



Zona II 


No.4 
SNI 031968 
100 
90100 


No.8 
1990 

87,66 
85100 


No.16 


80,42 
75100 


No.30 


52,20 
6079 


No.50 


16,31 
1240 


No.100 





1,69 
010 
From
the test results it can be concluded that fine aggregate (barito sand) is
included in SII 005280 and can be used for mortar mixtures.
1.
Cement Test Results
In the cement
testing carried out, there were 2 types of 3 types of cement, namely Gresik
cement (PPC), Tonasa cement and Tiga Roda (PCC). The test results of the three cements
can be seen in table 2. to table 3.
Table 3
Semen Gresik (PPC) Test Results
No 
Kinds
of Inspection 
Granulated
Cement (PPC) 
Specification 

Reference
Standard 
Result 

1 
Specific
gravity 
AASHTO
T13374 
3,07 
 
2 
Subtlety 
AASHTO
T12876 

 stuck
filter No.100 
0,12% 
 

 stuck
filter No.200 
15,44% 
 

3 
Consistency 
AASHTO
T.1974 
24,67% 
 
4 
Binding
Time 
AASTHO13174 
SNI 1503022004 

 Beginning
of Bonding 
125 Minutes 
Min. 45 Minutes 

 End of
Binding 
195 Minutes 
Maks. 7 O'clock 
Table 4
Cement Conch Test Results
(PCC)
No 
Kinds
of Inspection 
Granulated
Cement (PPC) 
Specification 

Reference
Standard 
Result 

1 
Specific
gravity 
AASHTO
T13374 
3,23 
 
2 
Subtlety 
AASHTO
T12876 

 stuck
filter No.100 
0% 
 

 stuck
filter No.200 
1,76% 
 

3 
Consistency 
AASHTO
T.1974 
25,67% 
 
4 
Binding
Time 
AASTHO13174 
SNI
1570642004 

 Beginning
of Bonding 
129 Minutes 
Min. 45 Minutes 

 End of
Binding 
210 Minutes 
Maks. 375 Minutes 
Table 5
Chalk Test Results
No 
Kinds of Inspection 
Three Wheel Cement (PCC) 

Reference Standard 
Result 

1 
Specific gravity 
AASHTO T13374 
3,03 
2 
Subtlety 
AASHTO T12876 

 retained
filterNo.100 
3,72 

 stuck filter No.200 
22,7 
Table 6
Cement Conch Fastening Time
(PCC) Judging
Decrease Observation Number 
Drop Time (Minutes) 
Decrease
(mm) 
1 
30 
41 
2 
45 
41 
3 
60 
39 
4 
75 
39 
5 
90 
35 
6 
105 
33 
7 
120 
31 
8 
135 
21 
9 
150 
12 
10 
165 
4 
11 
180 
2 
12 
195 
1 
13 
210 
0 
Table 7
Semen Gresik (PPC) Bonding
Time Judgment
Decrease Observation Number 
Drop Time (Minutes) 
Decrease
(mm) 
1 
30 
41 
2 
45 
41 
3 
60 
41 
4 
75 
41 
5 
90 
40 
6 
105 
35 
7 
120 
28 
8 
135 
21 
9 
150 
16 
10 
165 
3 
11 
180 
1 
12 
195 
0 
From the results of cement testing,
it can be concluded that:
1)
The specific gravity of greek
cement and lime is smaller than that of conch cement.
2)
Of the two types of cement, conch
cement is smoother than gresik cement.
3)
Semen Gresik has a smaller
consistency.
4)
The initial setting time of Gresik
cement is faster.
1. Calculation of Mortar Mixed Materials (Mix Design)
For
the calculation of the planning of the mortar mix (mix design) according to SNI
0368822002 the materials used such as water, fine aggregate of barito sand, lime and cement used are greek
cement and conch, the proportions of the mixture of the 2 types of cement, fine
aggregate, lime and water is all the same.
The
calculation of mixed materials is in tables 7 to 8.
Table 8
Proportion of Gresik Cement
Mixture
(PPC) And Cement Conch (PCC)
Mixed Proportion 
Portland Cement 
Fine Aggregate (Sand) 

Volume Proportion 
1 
5 

Filling Weight (g/m³) 
1250 
1530 

Modifying Factor 
0,392 
0,392 

Material Weight (g) 
490 
2998,8 
Mortar with
a mixture composition of 1 part portland
cement and 5 parts sand based on a volume ratio. Conversion of volume ratio to
weight ratio is calculated as follows:
For 1 x
Mixing, 3000 grams of sand is recommended.
Mixed onetime modifier
= 3000/(1530 x
5) = 0,392
(Based on Sand Material)
Portland cement weight = 1 x 1250 x 0,392 = 490 g
Sand Weight = 5x 1530
x 0,392 = 2998,8 g.
Water = 425 ML
Water Cement Factor = 0.87
Onemix
modifier factor is the volume of material for one part in the volume ratio for
one mix.
Table 9
Cement Mixture Proportion
Gresik+Lime and Cement
Conch+Lime
Mixed Proportion 
Portland Cement 
Fine Aggregate (Sand) 
Chalk 

Volume Proportion 
1 
5 


Filling Weight (g/m³) 
1250 
1530 
806 

Modifying Factor 
0,392 
0,392 
0,392 

Material Weight (g) 
490 
2998,8 
394,94 
Mortar with a mixture
composition of 1 part portland
cement, lime and 5 parts sand should be tested. Based on the comparison for the
conversion from the volume ratio to the weight ratio is calculated as follows:
Mixed onetime modifier
= 3000/(1530 x 5)
= 0,392
Portland cement weight
= 1 x 1250 x 0,392 = 490 g
Chalk Weight =x 806 x 0,392 = 394,94 g
Sand Weight = 5x 1530 x 0,392 = 2998,8 g.
Water = 410 ML
Water Cement Factor = 0,84
Onemix modifier factor is the volume of material for one part in the
volume ratio for one mix.
1. Mortar Compressive Strength Test Results
The results of the compressive strength test of mortar according to SNI
– 0368252002 For variations in the type of cement there are 15 test objects
and are divided into 4 mortar ages, namely 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. From the
mortar compressive strength test, the following results were obtained:
The results of the compressive strength test of a mixture of cement
mortar (PPC) and conch (PCC) mortar Table 4.9. For more details, see Appendix
2.
Table 10
Mortar Strength Test Results
No 
Test Objects And Composition 
Strong Press 

Age 3 Days 
Age 7 Days 
Age 14 Days 
Age 28 Days 

1 
Mortar (Cement Conch) 1 Sp : 5 Ps 
2.31 
4.50 
8.74 
7.07 
2 
2.31 
5.27 
5.91 
5.52 

3 
3.98 
3.73 
5.91 
7.45 

4 



9.76 

5 



7.19 

Average 
2.87 
4.50 
6.85 
7.40 

1 
Mortar (Semen Gresik) 1 Sp : 5 Ps 
1.80 
3.34 
11.05 
9.25 
2 
2.70 
6.04 
6.94 
9.76 

3 
2.44 
2.96 
9.25 
12.21 

Average 
2.31 
4.11 
9.08 
10.41 

1 
Mortar (Cement Conch+Lime) 1 Sp : Kp : 5 Ps 
6.94 
10.92 
6.42 
3.85 
2 
3.85 
4.63 
5.14 
3.34 

3 
5.14 
3.34 
11.05 
3.60 

4 



5.40 

5 



2.83 

6 



8.22 

Average 
5.31 
6.30 
7.54 
4.54 

1 
Mortar (Semen Gresik+Lime) 1 Sp : Kp : 5 Ps 
5.01 
6.17 
6.42 
11.05 
2 
5.14 
6.17 
6.04 
6.94 

3 
4.63 
6.81 
6.94 
6.42 

4 



7.19 

Average 
4.93 
6.38 
6.47 
7.90 
From the results of mortar
testing at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 28 days, there are several samples of test
objects that must be removed because the results obtained are not in accordance
with SNI due to nontechnical errors so they must be removed.
The average compressive
strength value shows that the average compressive strength of Gresik cement
increases at the age of 28 days.
5. Graph of
Mortar Test Results
Graph of Average Compressive Strength
Against Mortar Age
Figure 2
Comparison Graph of Compressive Strength
with Mortar Age
The compressive strength of mortar for the use of Semen
Gresik and Semen Conch from the age of 3 days to 28 days there was an increase
in the compressive strength, compared to Cement Conch with the addition of lime
at the age of 3 days to 14 days an increase in the age of 28 days decreased the
average compressive strength, while For mortars that use the addition of lime,
Semen Gresik with a mixture of lime, the results of the average compressive
strength of the age always increase and the normal without lime, Semen Gresik,
the results increase as the age of the mortar increases.
6. Graph of
Compressive Strength Against Mortar Age
The results of the compressive
strength of mortar for each age, mortar can be seen in the graph of the results
of the compressive strength.
Figure 3
Graph of Compressive Strength Against Mortar Age
Mortar compressive strength value:
1. Aged 3 Days
Conch cement with lime
mixture yields 5.31 Mpa
2.
7 Days Old
Cement Gresik with a mixture of lime yields 6.38