THE EFFECT OF ONLINE LEARNING ON ACADEMIC STRESS ON STUDENTS

 

Eric Arizona Samudra 1*

Andik matulesy 2

1, 2 Faculty of Psychology, University of 17 August 1945 Surabaya

jacksetengah42@gmail.com

*Correspondence: jacksetengah42@gmail.com

 


Submitted: 03 September 2021,  Revised: 15 September 2021,   Accepted: 27 September 2021


Abstrak. The policies carried out by the Indonesian government to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases include implementing health protocols, namely maintaining a distance so that the teaching and learning process in schools and campuses in each university uses the distance method as an effort to prevent the development and spread of COVID-19. Rapid and sudden changes in the education system can cause intense academic stress on students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether online learning can affect academic pressure on students. The subjects of this study were undergraduate students from several universities, both PTN and PTS spread across Java Island, who participated in online learning as many as 237 students or participants who had filled out the online learning scale and the Educational stress scale for adolescents (ESSA). This test uses SLR (Simple Linear Regression) SPSS 20.0 for windows with the results of a simple linear regression test between online learning and academic stress, the calculated F value = 5.110 at a significance level of p = 0.027 (p < 0.01). The results show a significant relationship between distance learning independent variable (X) and learning stress-dependent variable (Y). So it can be concluded that there is an important relationship between online learning and academic stress. The implications of the results of this study are expected to be a reference for related parties to evaluate the online learning system so that it does not have an impact on increasing academic stress on students.

 

Keywords: online learning; academic stress; student.



INTRODUCTION

 

The world is rocked by an outbreak of coronavirus disease, which is often called COVID-19. At the end of 2019, this outbreak began to be found in Wuhan, China. All countries in the world are affected by this outbreak. The WHO has officially designated this situation as a pandemic. The number of COVID-19 cases in the world continues to increase. As of July 2020, the number of COVID-19 cases reached 13,224,909 issues found in 215 countries, with a death toll of 574,903 (Organization, 2020)

The policies made by the Indonesian government to reduce the number of cases of COVID-19 include implementing health protocols, namely physical distancing or social distancing, washing hands, and wearing masks. All activities that cause crowds are avoided to prevent the spread of this virus. (Andiarna & Kusumawati, 2020)

The Circular Letter of the Minister of Education and Culture Number 36962/MPK.A/HK/2020 explains that every teaching and learning process in schools and campuses in every university uses online methods to prevent the development and spread of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Educators implement online learning in various ways during school closures to anticipate the coronavirus. However, this implementation is considered not optimal and shows that educators are unprepared to adapt to the digital climate (Charismiadji, 2020) in (Jannah & Santoso, 2021).

Online learning is a learning activity utilizing the internet network and local area network to interact in learning, such as delivering material (Azhari & Ming, 2015). Online learning can be done with computers, laptops, or smartphone facilities connected to the internet network. With these facilities, lecturers, students, and students can study together simultaneously using platforms such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Zoom, Meets, Google Classroom (Andiarna & Kusumawati, 2020).

Cao, Fang, Hou, Han, Xu, Dong, and Zheng (2020) research that delays in academic activities are positively related to symptoms of student anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Andiarna research journal in 2020, research results show that online learning affects academic stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Cao et al., 2020)

In Accordance (Looker & Gregson, 2005), learning stress is a condition of individuals who experience pressure from perceiving and assessing academic stressors related to learning in their school environment. Students tend to experience learning focus.

College students have a high risk of stress and are exposed to various stressors. Stress experienced by students and students in schools/colleges is called academic stress (Barseli et al., 2017).

According to (Sarafino & Smith, 2014), stress is a condition when individuals feel unable to face the demands of their environment, so that individuals feel tense and uncomfortable. Academic stress occurs in the school or education environment (Barseli et al., 2017). (Kadapatti & Vijayalaxmi, 2012) define academic stress as a combination of academic-related demands that exceed the individual's adaptive resources.

Based on (Yikealo et al., 2018) research, it is known that most students at the Eritrea Institute of Technology tend to experience moderate levels of stress (71%). The study results stated that the most frequent stressors that trigger stress in students are inadequate learning facilities (40.7%), learning difficulties for a long period (32.5%), too many assignments, and academic burdens. (23.5%).

Changes in the education system so quickly and suddenly can cause intense stress on students, so this study aims to identify the causes of academic stress. (Moawad, 2020)

Research conducted by (Lubis et al., 2021) stated that students experienced the most stress in the moderate category, namely 80 students (39.2%). Stress in the high academic class was 55 people (27%), the low class was 48 people (21%), the exceptionally high category was 14 people (6.9%), and the deficient type was 11 people (5.4%). This means that students feel quite heavy pressure while carrying out bold learning during the Covid19 pandemic.

Based on the explanation above and in various cases that had arisen, such as academic stress due to online learning for students in Surabaya, it began to increase. Causing students to have difficulty participating in education, researchers decided to research online learning on student stress levels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

The independent variable is online learning, including distance learning. The dependent variable is academic stress. This study uses the Educational Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA) containing lecturers' assignments, student demands for independent research, and learning evaluations that lecturers more often give. Has been consulted with expert judgment to asked for an assessment and input to obtain a statement following the research.

The data collection used in this study is an online learning scale based on the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number 109 of 2013 concerning the Implementation of Distance Education in Higher Education with indicators of distance learning, interaction in distance learning, understanding in distance learning consisting of 18 statement items with a correlation index validity of 0.273 to 0.439. A reliability coefficient of 0.779 using a Linkert scale with answer choices very often, often, sometimes, never, and never with a score of 1 to 5. (Widayati et al., 2020)

The Educational stress scale for adolescents (ESSA) consists of 16 items where. The 16 items measure academic stress, including learning pressure, workload, worries about grades, self-expectations, and anxiety. Good internals. The alpha coefficients for each factor ranged from 0.660 to 0.750, and most were above the criteria for an acceptable level of reliability (Sodiq et al., 2020).

This research uses a quantitative approach, namely analysis. The data is expressed in numbers or numbers that can be calculated systematically and carried out by statistical formulas. The researcher also used a random sampling technique. The adolescent population who met the criteria were still undergraduate students from several universities, state universities, and private universities spread across Java, with as many as 237 students taking distance learning. (Creswell & Creswell, 2017)

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

The study results were obtained from an open scale distributed online via a google form. This scale is used to measure academic stress and online learning, which aims to get information in the form of whether the academic focus is affected by online learning

SLR (Simple Linear Regression) calculation results, this analysis is used to examine the relationship between online learning and academic stress. The results of a simple linear regression test between online learning and academic focus obtained a calculated F value of = 5.110 at a significance level of p = 0.027 (p < 0.01). The simple linear regression results show a significant relationship between the distance learning independent variable (X) and learning stress-dependent variable (Y).

Based on the results of research using qualitative methods and through data collection techniques. On a scale of 237 undergraduate students from several universities, both PTN and PTS spread across Java. The results show that online learning affects academic stress in students. In addition to staying at home during the learning process, students' unpreparedness in participating in the learning process, such as quotas that run out quickly, assignments that pile up, and lecturers' explanations, cannot be understood.

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

Online learning affects increasing academic stress on students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Apart from online learning, which is very minimal in face-to-face meetings, lecturers give many assignments without detailed explanations, signals that sometimes go up and down, and internet quotas that must adjust. Buying is also one of the factors that affect student academic stress. Although on the other hand, students are also required always to follow online learning well.

 

REFERENCES

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Azhari, F. A., & Ming, L. C. (2015). Review of e-learning Practice at the Tertiary Education level in Malaysia. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 49(4), 248–257.

 

Barseli, M., Ifdil, I., & Nikmarijal, N. (2017). Concept of student academic stress. Jurnal Konseling Dan Pendidikan, 5(3), 143–148.

 

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934

 

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Jannah, R., & Santoso, H. (2021). Stress Levels of Students Participating in Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Riset Dan Pengabdian Masyarakat, 1(1), 130–146. https://doi.org/10.22373/jrpm.v1i1.638

 

Kadapatti, M. G., & Vijayalaxmi, A. H. M. (2012). Stressors of academic stress-a study on pre-university students. Indian Journal of Scientific Research, 3(1), 171–175.

 

Looker, T., & Gregson, O. (2005). Managing stress: Coping with stress independently. Yogyakarta: Baca.

 

Lubis, H., Ramadhani, A., & Rasyid, M. (2021). Academic Stress of Students in Conducting Online Lectures During the Covid 19 Pandemic. Jurnal Psikologi, 10(1), 31–39.

 

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Yikealo, D., Tareke, W., & Karvinen, I. (2018). The level of stress among college students: A case in the college of education, Eritrea Institute of Technology. Open Science Journal, 3(4). https://doi.org/10.23954/osj.v3i4.1691